Asthma Pathophysiology, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment — Medico IQ

Medico IQ
8 min readJan 22, 2021


Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways which produce extra mucous. This means they swell and produce thick mucus and it is the condition of the long term.

Asthma is a condition the airway thin and swelled and produces more extra mucous and this condition can difficulty breathing, trigger coughing, And wheezing (sound during inspiration).

The airway is a tube that carries air in and out of the lungs if any patient has asthma so their wall of the airway is swollen & Painful. Asthma is a condition that affects the air passes of the lungs. it is a three-step problem.

  1. When a person has asthma, the air passages are red and swollen. In an attack, the lining of the passage swell and causing the airway to narrow and reducing the flow of air in and out of the lungs.
  2. Airway hyperresponsiveness to a wide range of stimuli. Inflammation of air passages makes them extra sensitive to a number of different things that can trigger or bring on asthma symptoms.
  3. Muscles within the breathing passage contract (Bronchospasm), Causing even further narrowing of the airway. this narrowing makes it difficult for air to be breathed out from the lungs.

Asthma Pathophysiology

Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree and spasm of the bronchial smooth muscles .this cause narrowed airway and air trapping. the pathogenesis of asthma is complex & not fully understood.

It involves a number of cells, mediators, Nerves, and vascular leakage that can be activated by several different mechanisms, of which exposure to allergens is the most important.

Three factors contribute to the finding of obstruction

  • The Muscles around the airway tighten ( spasm of the smooth muscle of bronchi).
  • The Lining of the airways becomes swollen(Edema of bronchial mucosa).
  • Increased secretion and accumulation of thick tenacious mucus within the lumen of bronchi and bronchioles.
  • the underlying problem is inflammation as a result of a complex interaction.

Inflammation of airway

View video of Asthma Pathophysiology

1) Allergic asthma (Extrinsic Asthma) — The term allergic or extrinsic asthma used when the symptoms are induced by the hyperimmune response to the inhalation of specific allergens, such as

Allergic asthma is more likely to be seasonal because if often goes hand-in-hand with allergic that is also seasonal”

2) Non-Allergic Asthma (Intrinsic Asthma) — This type of asthma is triggered by an irritant in the air that is not related to allergic Including

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3) Mixed Asthma- Mixed asthma has included of both allergic and nonallergic. It’s the most common form of asthma.

4) Cough Variant asthma- It is characterized by one symptom, a persistent dry cough. Cough variant asthma leads to full-blown asthma that shows other asthma symptoms.

5) Exercise Included — This Asthma affects people after physical activity. EIA asthma occurs in people who are not sensitive to classic asthma triggers like pollen, dust dander, etc.

6)Nocturnal asthma- This type of asthma is characterized by asthma symptoms that worsen at night .Who suffer nocturnal asthma can also experience a=symptoms any time of the day. However certain triggers such as heartburn, pet dander, and dust mites.

Causes of Asthma Pathophysiology

Generally, the cause of asthma is clearly not understood but some combination factor like the environment and the energetic factor is show and confirm their causes. some point is given in below…

  1. Environmental Factor- A) Change in Temperature mostly cold air. B) Change in Humidity.
  2. Allergen Inhalation — Food Treated with sulfate, beer, wine. etc.
  3. Atmospheric Pollutant — Cigarette, Industrial smoke, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde
  4. Medication- NASID, Beta-blocker medication, aspirin.
  5. Stress and up sate/Emotional
  6. Strong odor and perfumes.
  7. Genetics- Genes play an important role in developed asthma.
  8. Physical Activity (exercise-induced asthma).
  9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  10. Allergic Reaction to some foods, such as peanuts or shellfish.
  11. Low birth weight.
  12. Hay fever (Allergic rhinitis) and other allergies.
  13. Eczema another type of allergy affecting the skin.

Sing and Symptoms

Their Sing and symptoms are similar to other diseases with airflow limitations like chronic bronchitis.

  1. Wheezing — Wheezing is a whistling noise heard during breathing. It is the result of air being forced through the narrower constricted air passage.
  2. Coughing — Cough is one of the most common asthma symptoms .the cough may be dry and wet and might worsen at night, early in the morning, or after exercise.
  3. Shortness of breath — Shortness of breath is the feeling that breath is barely finished before another is needed. It has been described as air hunger by some people.
  4. Mucus Production — Many People with asthma produce excessive, thick mucus that obstructs the airway, which can lead to coughing.
  5. Chest Tightness -This may feel like something is squeezing or sitting on the chest. as muscles surrounding the airway constrict, the patient may experience a feeling of tightness in the chest.


Spirometer-This Device Measures how much air you can exhale and how forcefully you can breathe out. the test may be done before and after you take inhaled medication. The spirometer is a good way to see how much breathing is impaired during an attack.

Peak Expiratory Flow Determination -: Measure the ability to push air out of the lungs or how fast air can be exhaled. This test uses a small device called a peak flow meter and can be performed by the patient at home to monitor lung function.

Chest X-Ray — These tests will help find out whether a foreign object or another disease may be causing symptoms. A chest x-ray may be necessary to indicate hyperventilation.

Allergy Blood testing-: Blood tests that are specific for the allergen suspected to be causing symptoms such as a dust mite, Mold, pet, dander, and pollens. allergy blood testing may be ordered to help determine asthma triggers.

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Asthma has 2 types of treatment medicine 1st is “ long term control” and the second one is “ quick-relief medicines”. Basically, Long term control medicines help to reduce airway inflammation of the lungs and prevent asthma. and quick-relief medicines relieve asthma symptoms.

This treatment is to help that person who has needed to take daily medicines to prevent asthma symptoms. They do not give quick relief from their symptoms. long term control medicines reduce airway inflammation.

Types of long term control medications-:

These medications included budesonide, fluticasone, flunisolide, mometasone, beclomethasone, and triamcinolone. The patient may need to use these medicines for several days to weeks before they reach their maximum benefits.

Leukotriene is a potential chemical substance that helps to create inflammation during an acute asthma attack. The leukotriene inhibitor medicine blocks this chemical and reduces the inflammation of tubes.

inhaled long-acting beta-agonist works to keep breathing passage open for 12 hours. They relax the muscle, the breathing passage, and decreasing the resistance to exhaled airflow, making it easier to breathe. and they also help to reduce inflammation.

Methylxynthine: Theophylline and aminophylline are examples of methylxanthine drugs. This Medication is chemically related to caffeine and methylxanthine is works as long-acting bronchodilators. at one time methylxanthines were commonly used to treat asthma.

Generally, this medicine uses less in the treatment routing of asthma because caffeine gives a side effect. Generally, this medicine using less in the treatment of asthma because caffeine gives a side effect.

Quick-relief medication is used as needed for rapid, short term symptoms relief during an asthma attack. or before exercise, if the doctor recommends it. types of quick-relief medication include

1.Short Acting Agonist- Albuterol, Levalbuterol, and pirbuterol are the example of short-acting agonist. They work rapidly, within minutes to open the breathing passages, and the effects usually last four hours. short-acting agonist most commonly used medication.

  1. Avoid Trigger.
  2. Drinking Enough Water.
  3. Use an air Conditioner.
  4. Clean Home Regularly.
  5. Get Regular exercise.
  6. maintain a healthy weight.
  7. Eat fruit and vegetables.
  8. Minimize pet dander.
  9. Avoid fragrance spray.
  10. Do not take cough medicines.
  11. Do Not take anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal drugs.
  12. Bild up an active lifestyle.
  13. Avoid smoking.
  14. Always keep your inhaler handy.
  15. Avoid Trigger — Keep away from exposure to an allergen, that trigger asthma symptom is a key part of asthma control.
  16. Drinking Enough water-Water is being well hydrated keep your mucus thinner aiding breathing as well as digestion. Drinking water is good for the management of asthma and so many ways.
  17. Use Air Conditioner- Air conditioner reduce the amount of airborne pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds that find their way indoors. air conditioning also lowers indoor humidity and can reduce exposure to dust mites.
  18. Clean Home Regularly- Keep clean your home. We suggest you deep clean your home once a week, from having too much dust, with wear a face mask because dust is a trigger point of activating asthma symptoms.
  19. Get Regular Exercise- Do exercise regularly because regular exercise can gain strength in your heart, lungs, brain which helps to relieve asthma symptoms. Generally, treatment can prevent asthma attacks and control symptoms of asthma but exercise gives you long-term relief.
  20. Maintain a Healthy Weight- Being overweight can worsen asthma symptoms, and it put you at higher risk of other health problems.
  21. Eat healthy foods, fruits, and vegetables- Avoid food that is higher in sugar and fried foods. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables may increase lung function and reduce asthma symptoms. these foods are rich in protective nutrients that increase your immune systems.
  22. Minimize Pet Dander- if you are allergic to dander, avoid pets with fur or feather .having pet regularly bathed or groomed also may reduce the amount of dander in your surrounding.
  23. Avoid Fragrance spray-Perfume, room freshener, cleaning spray, and mosquito-killing spray is very dangerous for asthma patient, it can cause so many problems on lungs and respiratory system, so that’s why always avoid this type of harmful product from an asthma patient.
  24. Do not take cough medicines- This type of medicine does not help asthma and may cause unwanted side effects.
  25. Do Not take anti-inflammatory and nonsteroidal drugs — For example, Aspirin ibuprofen can cause asthma to worsen in certain individuals.

Originally published at on January 22, 2021.



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